Indonesia : Muraibatu Tarung

Scientific name: Monticola solitarius Linnaeus, 1758

Separation of races generally difficult; characters tend to intergrade, suggesting that most, if not all, variation is clinal. Race philippensis highly distinctive in plumage and to some extent apparently also in ecology, but intergradation extensive. Five subspecies recognized.[ ]

Subspecies and Distribution:

  • solitarius (Linnaeus, 1758) – NW Africa, S Europe (E to Italy and N Balkans), N Turkey and Transcaucasia; non-breeding also N Africa and Arabia.
  • longirostris (Blyth, 1847) – Greece, W & S Turkey and Levant to Tien Shan and NW Himalayas; non-breeding also NE Africa E to N India.
  • pandoo (Sykes, 1832) – C Himalayas, C & E China (including Hainan) and N Vietnam; non-breeding S & SE Asia S to Greater Sundas.
  • philippensis (Statius Muller, 1776) – E Mongolia, NE China, Korea, S Sakhalin, S Kuril Is, Japan, Ryukyu Is, and N Philippines (Batanes Is); non-breeding SE China and Philippines S to Sundas.
  • madoci Chasen, 1940 – extreme S Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and N Sumatra.


:: Photos


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